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Peter Jeydel's practice focuses on US export controls and economic sanctions, including the Commerce Department’s Export Administration Regulations (EAR), the State Department’s International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), and sanctions regulations administered by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) and the State Department. His practice spans all aspects of these regimes, including counseling, compliance, transactional advice, licensing and opinions, disclosures, and enforcement actions. He has also represented companies and individuals seeking de-listing from OFAC’s sanctions list. In addition, Pete has assisted clients in anti-corruption matters, including under the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), and has experience handling reviews and investigations by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS).

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On May 10, 2024, the US Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) issued an Interim Final Rule, effective August 8, 2024 (the “IFR”), that clarifies the scope of OFAC’s rejected transaction reporting requirement, and introduces other amendments to the Reporting, Procedures and Penalties Regulations (“RPPR”) at 31 CFR Part 501.

While reported enforcement actions under the RPPR are not common, there are past examples, such as one that we reported on in 2016 and a 2022 enforcement action involving Nodus International Bank, Inc. (“Nodus”), an international financial entity located in Puerto Rico, for failure to maintain full and accurate records related to the handling of blocked property and inaccurate reporting of the blocked property to OFAC. Given OFAC’s increasing regulatory focus on the RPPR requirements, such as rejected transaction reporting, one can expect that the agency may increase its enforcement focus in this area as well. Therefore, parties subject to OFAC’s regulatory jurisdiction, including organizations that are not financial institutions, would be well advised to consider how to integrate these changing RPPR requirements into their compliance programs.Continue Reading OFAC Amends Reporting Requirements – Important Considerations for Compliance

On April 24, 2024, President Biden signed HR 815, “Making emergency supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2024, and for other purposes,” into law (the “National Security Supplemental” or the “NSS”). The National Security Supplemental appropriates funds to provide security assistance to Ukraine, Israel, and US partners in the Indo-Pacific and humanitarian aid for Gaza. Alongside the appropriations measures, the National Security Supplemental includes the “21st Century Peace through Strength Act”, a collection of fourteen sanctions, export controls, and related regulatory measures targeting Iran, Russia, and China, in addition to areas of concern including narcotics trafficking, terrorist financing, and misuse of information and communications technology and services (“ICTS”).

In this post, we assess these new developments and the areas where they will likely have the greatest impact.Continue Reading President Signs Expansive Sanctions Bill Into Law; Doubling of Limitations Period for IEEPA Violations Likely to Have Major Impact

On March 21, 2024, the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) issued a final rule under the U.S. Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”) that imposes new export controls on certain individuals and entities identified on the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control’s (“OFAC’s”) List of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (“SDN List”).  More specifically, the final rule imposes a BIS licensing requirement on exports, reexports, or transfers (in-country) of all items “subject to the EAR” when certain categories of SDNs are parties to the transaction.  The covered types of SDNs are designated under 11 OFAC-administered sanctions programs (as noted by BIS), including those relating to Russia, Belarus, transnational criminal organizations, and narcotics traffickers (as well as making slight changes to similar preexisting controls on SDNs designated for activities related to terrorism or proliferation of weapons of mass destruction).

The U.S. government has described these broader EAR restrictions as a “force multiplier” to complement OFAC’s jurisdiction, by allowing these controls in Part 744 of the EAR to “act as a backstop for activities over which OFAC does not exercise jurisdiction.”  OFAC’s sanctions regulations generally prohibit U.S. persons from engaging in any transactions or dealings involving SDNs and blocked parties (i.e., entities owned 50 percent or more by one or more SDNs or blocked parties), and the property or interest in property of such parties in the United States or within the possession or control of a U.S. person must be blocked (i.e., frozen) and reported to OFAC.  Non-U.S. persons can violate U.S. sanctions programs by, among other things, “causing” a U.S. person to violate U.S. sanctions.  With limited exceptions such as under the Cuban Assets Control Regulations and the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations, OFAC’s sanctions regulations generally do not specify whether they apply to transactions taking place entirely outside the United States that do not involve U.S. persons simply because the transactions involve items subject to the EAR.  This new rule aims to close this gap by providing BIS with clear authority to take export controls enforcement action in such cases where U.S. products or technologies, but not U.S. persons, are involved.   

As a result of BIS’s rule, non-U.S. persons outside the United States, who may not clearly be prohibited (absent the involvement of U.S. persons) by U.S. sanctions regulations from dealing in the property or interests in property of an SDN or blocked party, will now generally be subject to licensing requirements under the EAR if reexporting or transferring (in-country) any item “subject to the EAR” when an SDN designated under at least one of these sanctions programs is a “party to the transaction,” including as purchaser, intermediate consignee, ultimate consignee, or end user.  This underscores the guidance in the Tri-Seal Compliance Note of March 6, 2024 that non-U.S. persons have export controls (and sanctions) licensing obligations under U.S. law, even if operating wholly offshore, and therefore, they should consider enhancing compliance screening protocols and controls to prevent violations of U.S. export controls and sanctions.Continue Reading Export Controls and Sanctions Converge: New BIS Restrictions on SDNs

The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) has published major revisions to its humanitarian authorizations and other general licenses under the North Korean Sanctions Regulations (“NKSR”), which took effect on February 16, 2024.  These regulatory changes expand the scope of authorized activity in North Korea, which should lead to fewer specific license applications for NGOs engaged in humanitarian work relating to the DPRK.  In this regard, OFAC has narrowed the restriction on authorized activity arising from “partnerships” with the DPRK government.  OFAC has also established a new authorization for journalistic activities in North Korea.  These revisions to the NKSR, along with some improved guidance from OFAC regarding banks’ due diligence expectations, may result in less de-risking by financial institutions when it comes to customer activity involving North Korea.

At the same time, there remain important limitations and conditions to these authorizations that must be observed.  Moreover, OFAC has implemented a new advance reporting requirement if one intends to use the revised humanitarian general license, which may increase the compliance burden on NGOs as well as provide the State Department an opportunity to object to the use of the general license on a case-by-case basis. Continue Reading OFAC Issues Significantly Revised NGO Authorizations for North Korea

On January 16, 2024, the Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement at the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) issued a memorandum, announcing that:

  1. parties disclosing minor or technical violations that occurred close in time can submit a single Voluntary Self-Disclosure (VSD) on a quarterly basis, which may include an abbreviated narrative account of the suspected violations; and
  2. parties sending formal requests to BIS’s Office of Exporter Services to engage in otherwise prohibited activities with respect to items involved in violations of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) should also send courtesy copies to the Office of Export Enforcement (OEE), which will help expedite BIS’s processing of such requests.

The memorandum builds upon previous changes to BIS’s administrative enforcement program, which were announced in memoranda dated June 30, 2022 and April 18, 2023.  These changes are intended to help OEE fast-track its review of “minor” or “technical” VSDs and to encourage additional disclosures of potentially significant violations of the EAR, but do not apply to VSDs relating to Part 760 of the EAR (antiboycott and restrictive trade practices).  For a detailed analysis of the previous memoranda, see our blog posts from July 6, 2022 and April 26, 2023.  Continue Reading BIS Makes Further Changes to Administrative Enforcement, But Questions Remain

On June 16, 2023, the US Department of Commerce published a final rule (the “June 16 rule”) to implement Executive Order (EO) 14034, Protecting Americans’ Sensitive Data From Foreign Adversaries, by amending Commerce’s previously-issued Securing the Information and Communications Technology Supply Chain regulations (the “ICTS rule”).   Among other requirements, EO 14034 directed the Secretary of Commerce to consider the risks posed by “connected software applications” and take “appropriate action” in accordance with the previously issued ICTS rule and EO 13873, Securing the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain, pursuant to which the ICTS rule was issued. 

The ICTS rule authorizes Commerce to prohibit or otherwise regulate certain transactions involving information and communications technology or services (“ICTS”) with a nexus to “foreign adversaries” that pose an “undue or unacceptable risk” to US national security.  (For additional detail on the ICTS rule, see our prior blog post.)  The June 16 rule amends the ICTS rule to clarify Commerce’s ability to regulate transactions involving software, including so-called “connected software applications,” and to further enumerate the criteria that Commerce will consider when reviewing such transactions.   The changes are effective July 17, 2023.Continue Reading Commerce Issues Final Rule Targeting Connected Software Applications

On April 18, 2023, Matthew Axelrod, Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement at the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS), issued a memorandum outlining two important changes to BIS’s settlement guidelines when significant potential violations of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) are identified. Specifically, BIS announced that (1) the deliberate non-disclosure of a significant potential violation will now be treated as an aggravating factor in civil enforcement cases, and (2) whistleblowing of significant potential violations by another party that ultimately results in a BIS enforcement action will be considered a mitigating factor in any future enforcement action involving the whistleblower, even for unrelated conduct. The policy changes are intended to incentivize the submission of disclosures to BIS when industry or academia uncovers significant EAR violations (i.e., those reflecting possible national security harm, as opposed to minor, technical violations).

BIS’s new policy of treating non-disclosure of significant potential violations of the EAR as an aggravating factor marks a potential sea change in the voluntary self-disclosure (VSD) risk calculus for exporters and reexporters. By reorienting the purpose of the VSD to serve as both carrot and stick, BIS has now interjected more complexity into the voluntary disclosure decision making process. Companies that may have been inclined, previously, to remediate significant potential violations but not disclose may now face a more difficult choice. While it may take years for the civil penalty data to demonstrate the concrete costs of non-disclosure of significant potential violations of the EAR, consideration of that factor is likely to weigh heavily in any future BIS VSD decisions.Continue Reading A Carrot and a Stick: BIS Clarifies Policy on Self-Disclosures and Whistleblowing

On February 16, 2023, the Department of Justice (DOJ) and Commerce Department announced the creation of the Disruptive Technology Strike Force with a mission to prevent nation-state “adversaries” from acquiring “disruptive” technologies.  The strike force will be co-led by Assistant Attorney General Matthew Olsen of the DOJ’s National Security Division (NSD) and Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement at the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) Matthew Axelrod, and will bring together the DOJ’s NSD, BIS, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Homeland Security Investigations, and 14 US Attorneys’ Offices in 12 metropolitan regions. 

The strike force’s mandate, and remarks by Deputy Attorney General Lisa Monaco announcing the new initiative, illustrate the US government’s continuing focus on protecting sensitive data and “disruptive” technologies, as well as the regulatory and enforcement tools that the US government has used and will continue to use to prevent the acquisition, use, and “abuse” of “disruptive” technologies by autocratic governments to commit human rights abuses and seek strategic advantage vis-à-vis the United States.Continue Reading Justice and Commerce Departments Announce Creation of Disruptive Technology Strike Force

On January 17, 2023, the US Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) issued an interim final rule (the “January 17 rule”), expanding its recent China-focused export controls, related to advanced computing and semiconductors, to Macau.  These controls, initially imposed on China (including Hong Kong), were announced in an interim final rule on October 7, 2022 (the “October 7 rule”). Continue Reading BIS Extends Advanced Computing and Semiconductor Rules to Macau

On December 20, 2022, the US Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) issued or amended general licenses (GLs) and FAQs to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2664, which establishes humanitarian carveouts across UN sanctions regimes. The development of UNSCR 2664 was co-led by the United States and Ireland, and the Security Council adopted the Resolution on December 9, 2022. The amendments to OFAC’s regulations are set forth in OFAC’s Final Rule published in the Federal Register (see here and here).Continue Reading US Treasury Implements Humanitarian Authorizations Across Sanctions Programs to Comply with UN Resolution